- Concerning the strengthening of the implementation of IHL (particularly, the Geneva Conventions and their Additional Protocols), the Government of Japan, in cooperation with the Japanese Red Cross Society, has been sharing awareness of various domestic and international issues related to IHL with relevant government institutions and the Japanese Red Cross Society through the IHL National Committee established in 1999. The Government of Japan has also been promoting discussion of these issues among relevant government institutions and the Japanese Red Cross Society. The latest committee meeting was held in February 2022 with the aim of strengthening the implementation of IHL at home and abroad. In the meeting, officials of relevant government institutions and experts exchanged views on the following: the status of follow-up to the 33rd International Conference; the outcomes of activities of the International Humanitarian Fact-Finding Commission (IHFFC), for which Japan has been nominating its nationals for over 15 years; and issues concerning cyber warfare and the use of emerging technologies in the area of Lethal Autonomous Weapon Systems (LAWS).
- The Government of Japan has been supporting the activities of various stakeholders in relation to the implementation of IHL. For instance, the Government provides personnel as judges to the IHL national moot court and role-play competitions organized annually by the ICRC Delegation in Japan, thereby contributing to the promotion of understanding of IHL among the younger generations, together with the ICRC Delegation in Japan and the Japanese Red Cross Society. On 13–14 May, 2021, the Government participated in the Humanitarian Congress Tokyo 2021 co-organized by Médecins Sans Frontières and ICRC, and expressed the view that it is important to ensure compliance with IHL, including through dissemination of IHL in Japan.
- On 3 May 2021, on the fifth anniversary of the adaptation of the United Nations Security Council Resolution 2286 (2016) on medical care in conflict, the Government of Japan, together with Egypt, New Zealand, Spain and Uruguay, issued a video statement (both in English and Japanese), which was delivered by the then State Minister for Foreign Affairs Mr. UTO Takashi. The statement was aimed at encouraging further cooperation on medical care in conflict, including access to medical care and protection of medical personnel during the COVID-19 pandemic. The statement was also published on various social media platforms.
- The Government of Japan attaches importance to cooperation with international organizations such as the Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General on Sexual Violence in Conflict (OSRSG-SVC) and participation in international forums for discussion. From 2019 to 2020, Japan, through the OSRSG-SVC, provided support for strengthening criminal justice capacity in the Democratic Republic of Congo to redress the situation in which impunity of perpetrators of conflict-related sexual violence is prevalent. In 2021, the Government of Japan provided financial assistance of approximately USD 900,000 to the OSRSG-SVC to support female victims of conflict-related sexual and gender-based violence in the Middle East, including Lebanon, Jordan and Iraq, at a time when COVID-19 was spreading rapidly in the region. The Government of Japan publishes these activities on social and other types of media.
- In 2020 and 2021, the Government of Japan contributed a total of EUR four million to the Global Survivors Fund (GSF) for survivors of conflict-related sexual violence, founded by Dr. Denis Mukwege and Ms. Nadia Murad, Nobel Peace Prize laureates 2018. The contribution was made to support the survivors of conflict-related sexual violence in conflict-affected areas, including the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Iraq. The Government of Japan has also been actively engaged in the management of the GSF as a board member and has introduced its activities in this regard on social media.
- The Government of Japan issued a video statement, which was delivered by Mr. UTO, the then State Minister for Foreign Affairs, at the International Conference on Women, Peace and Security (WPS) hosted by Viet Nam in 2020, expressing that Japan has been supporting capacity building of the police, military and judiciary and providing training to Peacekeeping Operations (PKO) personnel in order to prevent sexual violence in conflict.
- In the “Basic Position of the Government of Japan on International Law Applicable to Cyber Operations” published in June 2021, the Government of Japan announced its position that IHL is applicable to cyber operations. Based on the contents of this document, the Government has actively participated in cybersecurity-related conferences, including the United Nations Group of Governmental Experts (GGE) on Cybersecurity, where the Government expressed its position and contributed to discussions to include the application of IHL to cyber operations in the report of the GGE (GGE, 2021).
- The Government of Japan attaches importance to international rule-making on emerging technologies in the area of LAWS, which is being discussed under the framework of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW). The Government has repeatedly stated at home and abroad that IHL is fully applicable to all weapon systems, including to LAWS, which is one of the fundamental issues concerning the discussion on emerging technologies in the area of LAWS. Specifically, in 2019, the Government of Japan submitted and published a working paper on Japan’s position on the main issues with regard to emerging technologies in the area of LAWS, including the application of IHL to emerging technologies in the area of LAWS, in order to contribute to the progress of discussions at the GGE, which has been convened under the CCW since 2017. Moreover, in 2021, the Government of Japan, together with Australia, Canada, South Korea, the United Kingdom and the United States, presented a joint document on elements for possible consensus and issues expected to be discussed in the future. In regard to emerging technologies in the area of LAWS, the Government of Japan has been actively and constructively participating in the process of international rule-making, and contributing to discussions by examining specific challenges and necessary measures to ensure compliance with IHL. Furthermore, in 2019, Mr. KONO Taro, the then Minister for Foreign Affairs, hosted meetings to exchange views with experts in Japan and discussed various issues with them, including the applicability of IHL to emerging technologies in the area of LAWS, which was published on the Foreign Ministry’s website.
- The Government of Japan, specifically the Ministry of Defense (MOD) and the Self Defense Forces (SDF), attaches importance to IHL-related education in curricula for SDF personnel. The MOD and the SDF have been working to improve the IHL education system through incorporating IHL-related education into the regular curriculum at the National Defense Academy and at all SDF command and staff colleges. Additionally, IHL-related education is provided to personnel prior to deployment to PKO activities as well as at the Joint Staff College, the Japan Peacekeeping Training and Research Center and the International Peace Cooperation Activities Training Unit of the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force.
- The Japanese Red Cross Society has been working to promote IHL in various ways. The Society holds an annual seminar to disseminate IHL to staff members of its branches and facilities throughout Japan (FY 2020 outcomes: 64 participants). The Society’s staff members who have attended the above seminar have also facilitated training for other staff members at its branches and facilities (FY 2020 outcomes: 2,246 participants). The Society has also created opportunities to disseminate IHL to Red Cross volunteers and the general public (FY 2020 outcomes: 1,505 participants, including dissemination to the general public by the headquarters). Furthermore, the Society has made available an IHL learning program for instructors of the Junior Red Cross to help children and students develop humanitarian values. Finally, the Society disseminates information on IHL and “Health Care in Danger” in emergency situations abroad.
Finalización de la ejecución:Sí
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